Tag Archives: Electron

Copernicium: Man-made Element #112 and Ununbium by Another Name

The Copernicium/Ununbium atom was first synthesized in Germany on February 9, 1996

The Copernicium/Ununbium atom was first synthesized in Germany on February 9, 1996

Fun Facts About Copernicium/Ununbium

Nicolaus Copernicus: Portrait, 1580, Toruń Old Town City Hall

Nicolaus Copernicus: Portrait, 1580, Toruń Old Town City Hall

German nuclear scientists at the GSI facility announce they have created element 112, ununbium. Ununbium would be later renamed to copernicium in honor of Nicolaus Copernicus.

Copernicium or Ununbium

Atomic Number: 112

Symbol: Cp or Uub

Atomic Weight: [277]

Discovery: Hofmann, Ninov et al. GSI-Germany, February 9, 1996

Electron Configuration: [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2

Name Origin: Named for Nicolaus Copernicus, who proposed the heliocentric solar system. The discoverers of copernicum wanted the element’s name to honor a famous scientist who did not get much recognition during his own liferime. Also, Hofmann and his team wished to honor the importance of nuclear chemistry to other scientific fields, such as astrophysics.

The 120 meter long linear ion accelerator at GSI-Germany

The 120 meter long linear ion accelerator at GSI-Germany

Properties: The chemistry of copernicum is expected to be similar to that of the elements zinc, cadmium, and mercury. In contrast to the lighter elements, element 112 decays after a fraction of a thousandth of a second by emitting alpha particles to first become an isotope of element 110 with atomic mass 273, and then an isotope of hassium with atomic mass 269. The decay chain has been followed for three more alpha-decays to fermium.

Sources: Element 112 was produced by fusing (melting together) a zinc atom with a lead atom. The zinc atom was accelerated to high energies by a heavy ion accelerator and directed onto a lead target.

Element Classification: Transition Metal

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Californium: Radioactive Man-made Element Number 98

Californium, discovered February 9th, 1950, University of California

Californium, discovered February 9th, 1950, University of California

Fun Facts About Californium

Scientists at the University of California, Berkeley laboratories synthesized the first atoms of the element californium. It was created by bombarding a curium target with high energy alpha particles.

Atomic Number: 98

Symbol: Cf

Atomic Weight: 251.0796

Discovery: G.T. Seaborg, S.G. Tompson, A. Ghiorso, K. Street Jr. 1950 (United States)

Electron Configuration: [Rn] 7s2 5f10

Word Origin: State and University of California

Properties: Californium metal has not been produced. Californium (III) is the only ion stable in aqueous solutions. Attempts to reduce or oxidize californium (III) have been unsuccessful. Californium-252 is a very strong neutron emitter.

CaliforniumUses: Californium is an efficient neutron source. It is used in neutron moisture gauges and as a portable neutron source for metal detection.

Isotopes: The isotope Cf-249 results from the beta decay of Bk-249. Heavier isotopes of californium are produced by intense neutron irradiation by the reactions. Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, and Cf-252 have been isolated.

Sources: Californium was first produced in 1950 by bombarding Cm-242 with 35 MeV helium ions.

Element Classification: Radioactive Rare Earth (Actinide)

Density (g/cc): 15.1

Melting Point (K): 900

Atomic Radius (pm): 295

Pauling Negativity Number: 1.3

First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): (610)

Oxidation States: 4, 3

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