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The Kent State Massacre: A Day Ending in Tragedy Forever Immortalized in Song

Life Magazine covers the Kent State Shootings

The Kent State Shootings featured in Life Magazine

Facts About the Kent State Massacre

 

  • Cambodia, North & South Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh trail and Gulf of Tonkin

    Cambodia, North & South Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh trail and Gulf of Tonkin

    In May 1970, students protesting the bombing of Cambodia by United States military forces clashed with Ohio National Guardsmen on the Kent State University campus. When the Guardsmen shot and killed four students on May 4, the Kent State Shootings became the focal point of a nation deeply divided by the Vietnam War.

  • By 1970, thousands of Americans were actively protesting the Vietnam War. There were numerous reasons why these protests took place. Some of the prominent ones included revelations that former President Lyndon Baines Johnson had misled the American people about the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, which led to the escalation of American involvement in Vietnam in late 1964. The ending of college deferments, which previously had exempted most college students from the draft and service in Vietnam, further contributed to the protests. Finally, revelations that the United States military was bombing and sending troops into Cambodia, a country neighboring North and South Vietnam, and the increasing number of American casualties further angered many Americans.
  • President Lyndon Baines Johnson

    President Lyndon Baines Johnson

    Numerous people protested the Vietnam War for these and other reasons. These protests usually were peaceful and included such things as burning draft cards, fleeing to Canada or some other country to escape the draft, protest rallies and marches, or simply remaining enrolled in college to avoid the draft. However, even peaceful protests sometimes turned violent, as United States involvement in the Vietnam War divided the American people.

  • The most well-known protest involving the Vietnam War occurred at Kent State University in Ohio in May 1970. On May 1, Kent State students held an anti-war protest. That evening several incidents occurred, including rocks and bottles being thrown at police officers, the closure of bars by authorities before normal closing time to reduce alcohol consumption, and the lighting of bonfires. Eventually students, other anti-war activists, and common criminals began to break windows and loot stores.
  • Kent State University ROTC Building Fire

    Kent State University ROTC Building Fire

    The mayor of Kent, Leroy Satrom, declared a state of emergency on May 2. He requested that Governor James A. Rhodes send the Ohio National Guard to Kent to help maintain order. Rhodes agreed, and the National Guard members began to arrive the evening of May 2. As the soldiers arrived, they found the Reserve Officer Training Corps building at Kent State University in flames. It is unclear who set the building on fire. It may have been anti-war protesters, but it also could have been someone seeking to have the protesters blamed. Interestingly, Kent State officials had already boarded up the ROTC building and were planning to raze it. Protesters were celebrating the buildings destruction as fire fighters arrived. The protesters, which included both students and non students, jeered the fire fighters and even sliced the hoses that the fire fighters were using to extinguish the flames. National Guard members arrived to reestablish order and resorted to tear gas to disperse the protesters.

  • Ohio Governor James A. Rhodes

    Ohio Governor James A. Rhodes

    On May 3, approximately one thousand National Guard soldiers were on the Kent State campus. Tensions remained high, and Governor Rhodes further escalated them by accusing the protesters of being un-American. He proclaimed, “They’re the worst type of people that we harbor in America. I think that we’re up against the strongest, well-trained, militant, revolutionary group that has ever assembled in America.” Some Kent State students assisted local businesses and the city in cleaning up damage from the previous night’s activities, but other students and non-students continued to hold protests, further exacerbating the situation. The National Guard continued to break up these demonstrations, including threatening students with bayonets.

  • Ohio National Guardsman stand off against student protesters

    Ohio National Guardsman stand off against student protesters

    On May 4, a Monday, classes resumed at Kent State. Anti-war protesters scheduled a rally for noon at the campus. University officials attempted to ban the gathering but proved unsuccessful in their efforts. As the protest began, National Guard members fired tear gas at the demonstrators. Due to wind, the tear gas proved ineffective. Some of the protesters threw the canisters, along with rocks, back at the soldiers. Some of the demonstrators yelled slogans such as “Pigs off campus!” at the soldiers.

  • May 4, 1970: Four Kent State Students were killed

    May 4, 1970: Four Kent State Students were killed

    Eventually seventy-seven guardsmen advanced on the protesters with armed rifles and bayonets. Protesters continued to throw things at the soldiers. Twenty-nine of the soldiers, purportedly fearing for their lives, eventually opened fire. The gunfire lasted just thirteen seconds, although some witnesses contended that it lasted more than one minute. The troops fired a total of sixty-seven shots. When the firing ended, nine students lay wounded, and four other students had been killed. Two of the students who died actually had not participated in the protests.

  • These shootings helped convince Americans that the anti-war protesters were not just hippies, drug addicts, or promoters of free love. They also included middle- and upper-class people, as well as educated Americans. Rather than causing a decline in protests, the Kent State shootings actually escalated protests. Many colleges and universities across the United States canceled classes and actually closed their doors for the remainder of the academic year in fear of violent protests erupting on their campuses. In 1970, Ohio State University dismissed its spring quarter classes in early May rather than in June because of protests at this institution. Other Ohio institutions followed suit. Kent State University immediately closed with the shootings on May 4, and did not offer classes again for six weeks, when the summer term began.
  • President Richard Nixon

    President Richard Nixon

    The various protests drew to an end as President Richard Nixon, who served from 1969-1974, began to withdraw American soldiers from North and South Vietnam. With the signing of the Paris Peace Accords in 1973, which basically ended American involvement in the Vietnam War, the protests drew to a close. Still, the Kent State shootings continue to reverberate through American society and culture. An example of this is Neil Young’s song, “Ohio,” which commemorated the shootings.

“Ohio” Lyrics

Tin soldiers and Nixon’s comin’.
We’re finally on our own.
This summer I hear the drummin’.
Four dead in Ohio.

Neil Young

Neil Young

Gotta get down to it.
Soldiers are gunning us down.
Should have been done long ago.
What if you knew her and
Found her dead on the ground?
How can you run when you know?

Na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na.
Na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na.
Na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na.
Na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na.

Gotta get down to it.
Soldiers are cutting us down.
Should have been done long ago.
What if you knew her and
Found her dead on the ground?
How can you run when you know?

Kent State MassacreTin soldiers and Nixon’s comin’.
We’re finally on our own.
This summer I hear the drummin’.
Four dead in Ohio.
Four dead in Ohio.
Four dead in Ohio.
Four dead in Ohio.
Four dead in Ohio.
Four dead in Ohio.
Four dead in Ohio.
Four dead in Ohio.
Four dead in Ohio.

VIDEO:  Neil Young – “Ohio”

Special thanks to OhioHistoryCentral.org and Lyrics007.com

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St. Lucia: Jewel of the Caribbean

St. Lucia

St. Lucia

Fun Facts About St. Lucia

 

  • St Lucia is the second largest of the Windward Islands located in the eastern Caribbean Sea.
  • On February 22, 1979, St Lucia gained independence from Great Britain
  • The island was created because of volcanic activity and is 43 km (27 miles) long and 23 km (14 miles) wide.
  • In recent years, St. Lucia has mainly been engaged in the export of bananas, clothing, vegetables, cacao and coconuts. In the past, St. Lucia’s biggest cultivation was of sugarcane, which was replaced by the cultivation of banana during the mid 1960s.
  • St. Lucia is situated in the Caribbean Sea, as part of the Lesser Antilles, with its total area covering 616sq km.
  • The closest islands neighboring St Lucia are St Vincent to the south, and Martinique, to the north.

  • The year-round temperature in St Lucia remains in the average range of about 27ºC (80ºF).
  • Castries, the capital city of St Lucia, is actually located in a flood gut region. Interestingly, Castries has been built on a reclaimed land mass.
  • St. Lucia, divided into 11 quarters, is estimated to have a population of almost 170,000.
  • The East Caribbean dollar (EC$) is the national currency of St. Lucia.
  • The recorded literacy rate of St Lucia shows about 67 percent of the population to be literate.
  • The average life expectancy of the people of St. Lucia is around 72 years.

  • Jacquot, or the St. Lucia Parrot, is a bird native only to these islands. It is the national bird of St. Lucia, and its scientific name is Amazona Versicolor.
  • St. Lucia was known as the Island of the Iguanas by the Amerindian Arawak and Carib people who are known to have been among the earliest settlers here.
  • At 950 m (3,117ft), Mount Gimie is the highest point on this island nation of St. Lucia.
  • Both France and England continuously struggled to establish sole control over St Lucia throughout the 17th and early 18th centuries. In the bargain, this island nation changed hands nearly 14 times.
  • Around the year 1600, the Dutch were the first to built Vieux Fort (or the old fort).
  • In 1746, the town of Soufriere was built, under French administration.
  • In 1814, St Lucia was surrendered to the United Kingdom, and came under British rule.
  • On 1st March, 1967, the island nation of St Lucia became self-governing in internal affairs.
  • “The Land, The People, The Light” was coined as the national motto of St. Lucia when it obtained total independence from England on 22nd February, 1979.

  • “Sons and Daughters of Saint Lucia” is the national anthem of St Lucia. Penned by Charles Jesse, it has been set to music by Leton Felix Thomas.
  • St Lucia continues to be a current member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • The Honourable Stephenson King, born in Castries, is the current Prime Minister of Saint Lucia.
  • Sir Arthur Lewis, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economic Sciences in 1979, was born in St Lucia in 1915.
  • Derek Walcott, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1992, was born in Castries in 1930.

  • The Pitons – Gros Piton and Petit Piton – are twin volcanic peaks that rise from the sea. These marvelous volcanic monuments have contributed in a big way to making St Lucia very famous.
  • In 2004, the Pitons Management Area containing much of a collapsed stratovolcano known as the Soufriere Volcanic Centre, became a World Heritage Site.
  • Sadly, hurricane Lenny left a lot of damage in its wake when it hit St Lucia in November 1999. The loss was estimated at around seventeen thousand East Caribbean dollars.
  • The rules for driving in St Lucia officially state that roads should be approached from the left hand side.
  • The Voice, The Star, The St Lucia Mirror, The Crusader and One Caribbean are some of the main newspapers of St Lucia. 

 

Special thanks to www.iloveindia.com

 

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